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Liss Said,
May 9th, 2011 @7:08 pm  

Upon binding of a ligand to a cell surface receptor – proteins inside the cells can become instructed to enter the nucleus to bind upstream of a gene, and either turn on or off the gene. These proteins are called transcriptional regulators.

Classically, proteins that head to the centrosome might be involved in microtubule assembly in preparation for cell division. But other proteins will head there specifically to one side of the cell or the other in asymmetrical cell division, for example in stem cell differentiation. That way one cell can remain undifferentiated and the other differentiated towards for example a liver cell.

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